Stereotypes of Astrology Signs


Your Sun sign or just plainly “sign” is associated with many stereotypes these are typically the first thing a person hears about before learning Astrology. Here are some of the most popular ones.

Sign? Sun Sign?

In Western Astrology, the Sun goes in and out of the 12 signs of Zodiac about once a month. If you do not know your Sun sign or are right on the edge and aren’t sure, do a quick search.

I don’t mean to offend- they’re all explained below.

Aries: Foolish and Impulsive

Summed Up

Fire sign Aries is adventurous and innovative. They are stereo-typically known for being naive, impulsive, and intrusive.

The Real Story

Aries, the first sign of the Zodiac wheel, is thought to be the youngest on their journey of the universe. They can be intrusive, frank, and sometimes very loud. Unlike most signs, though, they really don’t need to second guess themselves- they often get things right. They are moving fast and always searching. Their fresh and new views of the world keep things exciting and their competitive side keeps it always growing. Wisdom, on the other hand, well, they won’t be dogmatically reciting what they’ve read in old dusty books- they’ll learn more from experience which they’ll gain in time.

Taurus: The Penny Pincher

Summed Up

Earth sign Taurus is solid and practical. They are stereo-typically known for being materialistic, stubborn, and too careful.

The Real Story

Taurian Suns often get stuck with the somewhat selfish role of being stingy with money. In truth, this sign often has a very complicated relationship with money/possessions. They see they must play the game, as others do, to make a living but this doesn’t always match their career goals. They are often very creative and if they can learn to mix this with earning cash, they will be happy and generous to those in need. Otherwise they will continue to have a strange love/hate relationship with it. In focusing so much on Taurus’ stubborn and materialistic ways people often forget to describe this sign’s good taste for the finer things in life and their robust energy.

Gemini: The Fickle Jack-of-All-Trades

Summed Up

Air sign Gemini is curious and responsive. They are stereo-typically know for being changeable, flaky, and having a poor memory.

The Real Story

Though many Gemini Suns are proud to be a “twin” this isn’t entirely the whole story. This changeability is more flexibility rather than a split personality. Gemini Suns can jump between the extremes and stay sane. They prefer to learn a little bit of everything to experience and communicate/connect with others.

Their restless energy has them jumping from one thing to the next, as well. As for their memory, this is common with a chart ruled by air, not necessarily with just having a Gemini Sun. There is no mistake, though, Gemini Sun prefers to keep things light and if they do forget something other’s find important, they were simply thinking of other things- this will be a reoccurring misunderstanding for the Gemini Sun in personal relationships.

Cancer: The Home- Body

Summed Up

Water sign Cancer is intuitive and caring. They are stereo-typically known for being anxious, moody, and passive aggressive.

The Real Story

Cancer Suns have gotten a real bad reputation. It seems like all people have to remark on is their domestic and moody ways but really, you’ve got to give Cancer some credit. This sign is the Cardinal quality of the Water element, therefore, they are the leaders in all that involves channeling, intuition, and clairvoyance. Even if a Cancer Sun isn’t psychic, they have a deep vibrational energy that is underlying and strong to those who can see the sixth sense. To explain their need for home- Cancer Sun is nostalgic and feels deeply for childhood- they know that these roots color patterns in the future, as well as the ability to let love in.

Leo: The Melodramatic Performer

Summed Up

Fire sign Leo is proud and dignified. They are stereo-typically known for their gaudy-attire, attention-seeking, and leadership.

The Real Story

It’s not entirely false that the Leo Sun isn’t a little showy but there’s more to them that meets the eye. Sure they boast and brag but their self-confidence is contagious. Others feel important around them. Leo Sun believes in bravery and heroism. Their message is true and they commend others for their strength. SO yes- they can be dramatic in relevance to the rest of us but they believe in what they preach and in what they create.

Virgo: The Health Nut

Summed Up

Earth sign Virgo is hardworking and self-aware. They are stereo-typically known for their modesty, critical minds, organization, and health consciousness.

The Real Story

In modern times Virgo Suns have prevailed against these crude conceptions. They are now becoming known for their charm, independence, and common sense. The health concerns, however, stem from a sensitive digestive system, (this sign rules the intestines), which occurs mostly only in 1st and 2nd decan Virgos, (about from August 22-23 to September 10-12). This doesn’t always mean they are health nuts but many may decide to remove meat or dairy from their diets in later life if it starts to become a problem.

Libra: Superficial

Summed Up

Air sign Libra is harmonious and they like to weigh things out and compare/contrast. They are stereo-typically known for their love of beauty, justice-seeking, and seeing only what’s on the surface.

The Real Story

I believe Libran Suns to be misunderstood. They are idealists* and in an attempt to rid the world of filth they only cover it with smoke and mirrors. Without Libras there would be far less beauty in the world, justice, and the fairy tale of love and companionship would be all but carnal desires. I don’t think it should be viewed as “superficial” but more of a subtle tenacity in bringing beauty and harmony to the world through their own reflection and gestures.

Scorpio: Possessive & Intense

Summed Up

Water sign Scorpio is dissecting and reflective. They are stereo-typically known for being hypnotic, intense and especially possessive.

The Real Story

Scorpio is a very easy sign to pick out of a crowd- they seem determined and ready to defend themselves. This sign’s neighbors are Libra and Sagittarius- both considerably lighter than Scorpio.

*If you have Mercury in a different sign than Scorpio, your mind will not hold the brilliant dissecting qualities this sign has to offer and you’ll typically be much lighter in spirit.

Scorpio Suns seem synonymous with mystery and what is hidden. Past experiences have conditioned them to be untrustworthy. The possessiveness is simply misunderstood. Scorpio does not wish to own anyone they just wish to have another’s loyalty.

Sagittarius: Overly Frank & Blindly Optimistic

Summed Up

Fire sign Sagittarius is philosophical and freedom-loving. They are stereo-typically known for being sarcastic, blunt, and unrealistically optimistic.

The Real Story

Sagittarius Suns are the philosophers of the Zodiac. They could go for days on end metaphysically opening up all the doors and possibilities. Sagittarius as a character has a trust within the universe that is misunderstood to most. This optimism may get them into strange situations and will probably make them many new friends. I wouldn’t say they are completely blind to negativity and cynicism- they’re just indifferent to it.

Capricorn: The Old Goat

Summed Up

Earth sign Capricorn is ambitious and self-reliant. They are stereo-typically known for being set in their ways, slow-moving, and cynical.

The Real Story

The Sun set dead in the winter, in Capricorn, gets a reputation for being a little boring. Capricorn Suns are focused on career and, in this, they range from being very ambitious to a crazed workaholic. People sometimes think that Capricorn isn’t listening to them- it seems that this person is thinking of better times- the “good ol’ days” and not open to new suggestions. The truth of the matter is, Capricorn has fought for the things that they have earned and feel that others should work just as hard to earn what they get in life- they have a little trouble in seeing any short-cuts to success just for this reason. All earth signs, (Taurus, Virgo, Capricorn), are potential geniuses with materials and earthly values, however, so anyone with a little earth in their charts are bound to be misread for “materialistic” or “boring”.

Aquarius: Highly Impersonal

Summed Up

Air sign Aquarius is friendly and a humanitarian. They are stereo-typically known for being people watchers, eccentric, and personally cold.

The Real Story

It may sound a little strange- when people think of Aquarius Sun they think of a person who is kind and generous. Aquarians typically do well with large groups and shy away from one-on-one conversation. Personally, Aquarius Sun can be described as cold and intellectual. Aquarius is perhaps the most misunderstood of all the signs. They observe people and learn mannerisms of them so when they do get up close and personal, their intellectual theories intercept their emotional reactions. So, yes, everyone wants a quirky Aquarius friend but they must remember they are not so easy to catch.

Pisces: Easy to Confuse and Spacey

Summed Up

Water sign Pisces is imaginative and sympathetic. They are stereo-typically known for being impressionable, spacey, and easily amused.

The Real Story

As the last sign of the Zodiac cycle, Pisces is typically thought to be the wisest but many people think them to be a little air-headed. They often have fantastic imaginations and escape the “real” world to retreat to their day-dream world. They’re easily forgiving and this is seen as a weakness- it’s seen as naivety instead of compassion. Why does Pisces get such a bad reputation? Because most feel they don’t need to explain themselves- they are what they are, it is what it is, and this, too, shall pass.


Cheat the Lottery – Become an Instant Winner Today!


Every day, thousands upon thousands of lotto players search the Internet looking for tips on how to win the lottery. There are countless of websites devoted to providing lotto players from all around the country with pieces of advice on how they can win the lottery. These pieces of advice are sometimes marketed as the secrets to winning the lotto or the magic formula to become the next lotto winner. Of course, a good chunk of all these websites don’t really offer anything useful or practical. The great news is that this article you’ve stumbled on is made of the real thing – no fluffs, no ruffles and feathers, no fuzz. If you want to cheat the lottery and become an instant winner today, then you’ve come to the right place.

If you want to cheat the lottery and become an instant winner today, there is one tried and tested thing that you must miss to try out: using lotto wheels or lotto wheeling systems. These days, you can find a number of lotto wheels out there – online and offline. Here in the worldwide web, lotto wheels are being offered for free for first-time buyers; this is generally called a free trial period. Later on, you should buy the lotto wheel package for a particular cost so you can play the lotto for real.

What exactly does a lotto wheel or lotto wheeling system has to offer than will allow you to cheat the lottery and become an instant winner today? Well, as opposed to tips that rely on superstitious beliefs, such as dreaming of the winning lottery numbers, asking for lottery numbers from pregnant women because they are lucky, or using your own “lucky” numbers (such as your birthday or social security number), using a lotto wheel or lotto wheeling system makes use of pure and simple logic. In playing the lottery, logic tells us that we can become winners if we use numbers that have the highest probability of coming out as the winning numbers. A lotto wheel or lotto wheeling system can help you find out which numbers usually come out. With practice and repetition, you can spot winning numbers a mile away.

In order to cheat the lottery and become an instant winner today, some lotto players leave their fate to Lady Luck. You don’t have to be a genius to see that this kind of attitude just won’t work. It’s a recipe for failure, in fact. You will need more that luck to win the lotto. You need strategies that have been proven time and time again to beat the lotto’s long-shot odds, no matter what state you’re from or are playing in. Lotteries in every state can be outsmarted using a system that takes into consideration past lotto winning results, trends, and angles. Aside from using a lotto wheel or lotto wheeling system, you can also check out a cheater’s guide if you want to cheat the lottery and become an instant winner today, as well as other lotto number packages. Find a system that works for you and you can no doubt have a higher chance of winning the lotto.


Three Major Concepts of Psychoanalytic Theory – A Brief Summarization


Sigmund Freud was most noted for his five stage theory of human development. This theory originated through his observation and thorough documentation of adults’ recollections of memories during therapy sessions and was conceptualized by Sigmund Freud himself. Freud began his work in the 1880’s, and by the end of the 1890’s, his theory began to take on more of the formal attributes of its five stages. The theory was in response mainly to patients with hysterical symptoms who had reported sexual traumas that occurred early in their lives and the subsequent repression, or subconscious “pushing away”, of these sexual traumas as well as other uncomfortable thoughts of previous life events. Although a comprehensive review of all of the underlying assumptions regarding Freud’s theory of personality theory and the massive quantity of information that he wrote during his lifetime that would be virtually impossible to sum up, even over a period of many years are far beyond the scope of this project, some of the major assumptions will be discussed. However, with respect to the overall knowledge base and for the benefit of greater understanding of the five stage theory, it is my opinion that, prior to discussion of his stage theory of personality development, it is essential that his theories of the division of the mind and his components of personality are mentioned as these two major concepts are intricately intertwined with his five stage theory.

One major concept and underlying assumption of Freud’s theory subdivides the human mind into three distinct categories. According to his theory, the components of the mind include the conscious, pre-conscious and sub-conscious areas (Freud, 2002 revised ed.). As is implied by the title, the conscious mind consists of those things of which we are currently aware and to which we are currently attentive. The conscious mind also includes our current thinking processes, behaviors and environmental awareness. Hence, it can be obviously concluded that the conscious mind constitutes the major part of our current awareness. This concept can be validated as most people have, on occasion, heard statements from others such as, “I have a clean conscious”, or “I was not conscious of that at the time”, in casual conversations. Also according to Freud’s Theory, the preconscious mind consisted of all those things of which we are aware, but currently are not attentive (Freud, 2002 revised ed.). He further conceived that we can choose to pay attention to these and deliberately bring them into the conscious mind. Finally, with respect to the pre-conscious mind, Freud believed that we can control our awareness to a certain extent, from focusing in very closely on one conscious act to a wider awareness that seeks to expand consciousness to include as much of preconscious information as possible. At the subconscious level, the process and content are out of direct reach of the conscious mind. The subconscious thus thinks and acts independently (Freud, 2002 revised ed.). One of Freud’s key findings was that much behavior is driven directly from the subconscious mind. This has the alarming consequence that we are largely unable to control our behavior, and in particular that which we would sometimes prefer to avoid. More recent research has shown that the subconscious mind is probably even more in charge of our actions than even Freud had realized Murphy, 2001).

Three major components of personality were included in Freud’s massive, overall theory. These components include the Id, the Ego and the Super ego. The Id contains our primitive drives and operates largely according to the pleasure principle, whereby its two main goals are the seeking of pleasure and the avoidance of pain (Freud, 1962). Freud goes on to say that it has no real perception of reality and seeks to satisfy its needs through what he called the primary processes that dominate the existence of infants, including hunger and self-protection. Unlike the Id, the Ego is aware of reality and operates using the reality principle. The reality principle implies that the Ego recognizes what is real and understands that behaviors have consequences. This includes the effects of social rules that are necessary in order to live and socialize with other people. It uses secondary processes such as perception, recognition, judgment and memory that are developed during childhood. The dilemma of the Ego is that it has to somehow balance the demands of the Id and Super ego with the constraints of reality (Freud, 1962). The Ego controls higher mental processes such as reasoning and problem-solving, which it uses to solve the Id-Super ego dilemma, creatively finding ways to safely satisfy the Id’s basic urges within the constraints of the Super ego. The Super ego contains our values and social morals, which often come from the rules of right and wrong that we learned in childhood from our parents and are contained in the conscience. The Super ego has a model of an ego ideal which it uses as a prototype against which to compare the ego and towards which it encourages the ego to move. The Super ego is a counterbalance to the Id, and seeks to inhibit the Id’s pleasure-seeking demands, particularly those for sex and aggression.

Now we turn to what is the most famous aspect of Freudian theory, the five stages of human development. This theory sprung from Freud’s observations of adults’ recollections in therapy of their lives (Freud, 2003 revised ed.). He stated in this work that children were not directly observed. Although Freud’s theory has been roundly criticized for its lack of scientific character, it does stand however as a grand metaphor for describing personality. The stages of development include the Oral Stage which is the first stage. This stage begins at birth and generally ends at approximately 2 years of age. In the oral stage, infants and toddlers explore the world primarily with their most sensitive area, i.e., their mouths. They also learn to use their mouths to communicate. The next stage is the Anal Stage. This stage usually begins around 2 years of age and last for about a year. In the anal stage, children learned to control the elimination of bodily wastes. The Phallic Stage is the next stage. It generally begins at around 3 years and last until about age 5. The Phallic Stage is probably the most controversial of all of the stages because of the strong sexual underlying principles with respect to opposite parents at such an early age in life. To further explain, the controversy comes from Freud’s description of the Oedipus and Electra complexes, with their attendant concepts of castration anxiety and penis envy, respectively. The Oedipus Complex refers to a son’s sexual attraction to his mother while the Electra Complex implies just the opposite. Those complexes lead, according to Freudian theory, to normal differentiation of male and female personalities. The defense mechanism of repression was invoked to explain why no one could remember the events of this stage. In this stage, Freud also theorizes that children discover their sexual differences and inequalities. The phallic stage is followed by a Latency Period in which little new development is observable. In this stage, boys play with boys, and girls with girls, typically. Sexual interest is low or non-existent. The final stage is the Genital Stage. It started around 12 years of age and ends with the climax of puberty. Sexual interests re-awaken at this time. However, the sexual interests that come about during this period are appropriate and are toward genuine partners rather than opposite parents.

It is my assertion that an arbitrary and somewhat capricious character can easily be concluded from Freud’s theoretical framework. As it did with me, the importance of the divisions of the mind and the major components of personality with respect to decision making processes and appropriate progression through each stage of development should also become apparent. To further explain, a person’s level of awareness of self and surroundings should be directly proportional to a successful transition from birth to adulthood. The earlier in life this awareness begins should also increase the likelihood of successful personality development. Freud’s assumptions about the function of social work are not clear, but it does appear that a firm understanding of his major concepts would be very useful to have when working in applied social settings. That is to say, with respect to applications in real time social work practice situations for example, it would be most advantageous to know if a person has successfully and functionally developed as an adult, if they have a keen sense of awareness or if repression of past memories are factors. I truly believe that the aforementioned applications are also the major strengths of Freud’s theory. As previously mentioned, Freud’s work was so extensive that it is difficult, albeit not impossible, to determine its efficacy in most cases. The way I see it is that in most cases Freud was successful. Although it can not be accurately or adequately quantified as compared to applied behavior analysis, for example, it appears that the application of his concepts could be beneficial to most anyone.


American Psychological Association. (2002). Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (5th ed.). Washington, DC

Freud, S. (1962). The Ego and The Id (The Standard Edition of the Complete Psychological Works of Sigmund Freud). N.Y., New York. W.W. Norton and Company

Freud, S. (2002 revised ed.). Three Essays on the Theory of Sexuality. N.Y., New York: Basic Books

Freud, S. (2003 revised ed.). An Outline of Psychoanalysis. N.Y., New York: Penguin Classics

Murphy, Joseph (2001). The Power of the Subconscious Mind. N.Y., New York: Bantam


Business Sales Close Plan – Milestones to Close the Deal


Being with my feet on the sales ground for 25 years in IT, I can recommend that many steps in the sales process need to be discussed and agreed internally and with the business customer to come to an agreed and signed contract.

Following this sales process through a so called ‘Sales Close Plan’, describes all the necessary milestones that need to be agreed from a resource perspective, internally from a supplier perspective as well as from the business customer resource perspective. This Sales Close Plan will enable you to set upfront the right expectations during the contract negotiation milestones during an enterprise sales process.

Discuss with your business customer the close plan and have your customer sign/off the Sales Close Plan on timescales and milestones. If each milestone is finalized confirm this in email to your customer so all expectations and potential road blocks keeps transparent and visible to you as supplier and business customer.

1. Identify the Power Sponsors:

Which customer contacts have the power to approve or veto a major contract deal?

Who are the business owners?

2. Identify customer procurement process:

Send Non Disclosure for approval.

Perform Customer due diligence and screening.

Is supplier employee screening process required?

What are customer standard terms & conditions?

What are the expected legal challenges? Intellectual property, Warranty…?

What are the payment terms?

What is the VAT number?

What are the shipping address details?

What are the billing address details?

Discover expense costs cap guidelines.

What is the business identity code?

Will payment be in Dollars/Euro…?

What are the finance contact details?

Which legal resources are required from supplier, internally, externally?

3. Approval process:

Who needs to approve from the IT department?

Who needs to give approval from the business department?

Is budget available? If not when?

Is Board approval required to close the deal? I yes, when is next Board meeting

Which person from the Board supports business case?

Do we need a reference visit and who will attend from the customer?

Which reference do we nominate for site visit or phone interview?

Agree on travel arrangements for reference visit.

4. Feedback 1st round legal/proposal discussions:

Does the commercials/T&C’s in the proposal need to be updated to get a deal?

If yes, which resources from supplier and customer are required?

Do we need internal approval from higher management for this?

Is customer requesting any legal adjustments that need further legal review by supplier?

5. Send new proposal/T&C’s contracts:

Agree date for presentation final proposal to customer.

Is customer verbally accepting new proposal/T&C’s?

6. Contracts:

When will customer sign/off contracts?

When can signed contracts be collected at customer?

Reconfirm resources allocation.

Start of project or delivery.


Participant Structures and Communicative Competence


In her article, “Participant Structures and Communicative Competence: Warm Springs Children in Community and Classroom” Susan Philips described the disjuncture between verbal encounters in classrooms where young North American Indians get formally educated and in their native communities where they learn the particular skills their people deem necessary in their roles as members of the community. This disjuncture represents one of the major challenges being encountered in the primary and secondary education of North American Indians which have been widely reported in previous research and are well-known phenomena in the national education sector.

Specifically, Philips focused her study on the learning dynamics in Warm Springs Indian Reservation where some 1,500 descendants of the Warm Springs Sahaptin, Wasco, Chinook, and Paiute Indians who have began settling there in 1855, live. While originally from distinct tribes, these groups evolved into an almost homogenous community and came to share almost identical cultural backgrounds after more than a hundred years of sharing the same geographical home. Presently, these groups collectively call themselves the “tribe.”

In their efforts to improve the educational system in the reservation, the tribe encouraged the establishment of schools and scholarship programs. However, after many years of teaching Indian children using the standard methods implemented in US public schools, a clear trend has emerged, indicating that Indian students consistently perform poorly compared with non-Indian learners. Thoroughly examining this phenomenon, Philips demonstrates that there are pronounced differences between the social conditions that govern verbal discourses in classrooms and the conditions that allow Indian children to participate verbally in community activities, and that these differences in participant structures account for the poor educational performance of young Indian learners in Warm Springs.

Philips provided a comparative context for her study by making observations of all-Indian and non-Indian or white grammar school classes at first and sixth grade levels. Philips also considered Indian social conditions to determine how Indian children verbally participate during community gatherings. These are some of the participant structures Philips probed to show the disconnect between standard verbal communication dynamics in the classroom and the culturally charged verbal opportunities allowed or encouraged by the community. As demonstrated, this disconnect causes the communicative competence issues being reported on Indian learners.

The four participant structures Philips discussed in her article are 1) the teacher speaking to the group of students; 2) a student who has volunteered or has been asked by the teacher to speak in front of the class; 3) students working independently but each having access to the teacher for a one-on-one verbal engagement; and, 4) student groups controlled by the students themselves. Young Indian learners exhibit unusually high hesitance to participate in the first two participant structures while they strongly engage in verbal encounters in the third and fourth participant structures. Notably in all participant structures, Indian children refuse to assume leadership roles in verbal encounters.

Meantime, participant structures at home and in the community are radically different from those in schools. First, in Warm Springs community activities where children are allowed to participate, any member my verbally communicate in various ways. There are no distinctions between performer and audience because everyone can participate. Each community member is also allowed to decide how much she wants to participate. In these community activities, there is no single leader that controls the engagements unlike in classrooms where the teacher pretty much controls all the learning processes. On the other hand, community activities like dancing, singing, and drumming, require no soloists. This strongly reflects on speaking roles allowed by the community. Indian children also required or encouraged to observe adult interactions. Moreover, there is a marked absence of skill testing similar to quizzes, graded recitations, and exams being done in classrooms. In Warm Springs, learners conduct private self- tests to gauge their own proficiency with a given skill. Only when they are certain that they have developed sufficient skill will they publicly demonstrate what they have learned. Often, the demonstration is also nonverbal, such as a shot deer or a properly prepared dinner on the table. Lastly, use of speech is minimal in most participant structures in Indian communities.

These contextual differences account for the inappropriateness of western teaching models as applied in Native American contexts and will likely prolong historical inequalities if left unchanged and unresponsive to the cultural preferences of Native American learners.


6 Week Body Makeover – Eating at Restaurants Guide


Being on a diet can be stressful, especially when ordering food from restaurants. Restaurants tend to have high calorie foods and have limited nutritious choices for the more health conscious people. Here are some general guidelines when eating out so that you can continue to lose weight on the 6 Week Body Makeover while dining in a restaurant.

Remember, when you’re at a restaurant, you are the guest. Don’t be afraid to ask the server for special requests. Restaurants want your business and it’s their job to make you happy. Most restaurants will be happy to oblige certain requests in order to accommodate people with certain dietary needs. However, make sure to be polite when requesting special items.

Make sure that you’re specific when making a special food request. One blunder of eating out is your lack of knowledge of how the food is prepared. Some “healthy” items on a menu can actually be more fattening than you expected just by the way the restaurant prepares it. At home, you might cook your veggies with a small amount of oil and no salt. At a restaurant, they might use 5 spoonfuls of butter and throw on a lot of salt. You never know and that is why you should be specific and ask how food is prepared when ordering. Order and be as specific as possible and make sure to describe how you want it prepared. It’s all up to you on what you want when at a restaurant.

When with your friends, make sure to order last. When people are first, they feel like they are rushed. Since you will need more time than others, let everyone order first. Try and be nonchalant about your order and order without fussing. You do not want to feel embarrassed about your menu item. People might think you’re pretentious when making special requests, but remember, you are trying to lose weight.


Broken Blood Vessels Cause Dark Circles Under Eyes


Millions of people have dark circles under eyes. Most have inherited the color and characteristics of their lower eyelid from their parents. Dark circles under eyes often appear during childhood, many people telling me they first noticed their dark circles when they were 9 or 10 years old.

There are many causes of dark circles under eyes, but in this article I am going to focus on broken blood vessels, small vascular (blood vessel) structures in the lower eyelid skin. Broken blood vessels are the easiest cause of dark circles under eyes to treat and correct.

How Broken Blood Vessels Cause Dark Circles under Eyes?

Actually what most people call broken blood vessels are not really broken blood vessels. What most people see are visible blood vessels (vascular structures) on the skin in areas that they do not expect to see blood vessels. These small vessels are arterioles, venules, and capillaries. Arterioles carry fresh blood to the skin and venules take old blood away from the skin, back to the heart and lungs to be refreshed with oxygen. Capillaries connect the arterioles and venules.

Normally blood vessels are deeper in the skin and not visible. Visible or broken blood vessels become noticeable in the following situations:

o Thin Skin– The eyelid skin is the thinnest skin in the body. The eyelid skin is only 1/6 the thickness of the skin on the rest of the face. The skin is so thin that you can see through it. You can actually see the small arterioles and venules in the skin of the eyelid. These same structures are present in all skin but are not visible in thicker skin elsewhere in the body. The lower eyelid muscle is purple, and this color is visible through the eyelid skin. That is why all lower eyelids have a darker color. This color is what most people refer to as dark circles under eyes.

o Telangiectasias or Spider Veins– The arterioles, venules and capillaries in dark circles under the eyes can be dilated or enlarged a condition called telangiectasia or often referred to as spider veins. Telangiectasias are most often caused by heredity. However, aging, pregnancy, use of topical steroid cream, excessive exertion such as weight lifting, and Rosacea also can cause telangiectasia.

o Aging and Inflammation– Ultraviolet radiation and other skin aging factors produce inflammation or irritation of the skin, especially the thin skin around the eyes. When eyelid skin is inflamed, new arterioles, venules and capillaries vessels grow into the skin to repair the damage. These new structures stay in the skin and are visible. The presence of these vascular structures darkens the color of the lower eyelid skin and can appear as dark circles under eyes.

How to Remove Dark Circles under Eyes Caused by Broken Blood Vessels

Lasers can remove Telangiectasias, and small vascular structures under the eyes, but newer light based treatments are safer and better. The newer technique called Intense Pulsed Light (IPL) or photo facial is a much gentler procedure that is very effective and does not leave marks or white areas under the eye, a major problem with older laser techniques.

o IPL- Photo Facial-Intense pulsed light (IPL) is not a laser. IPL uses a bright flash of visible light which is tuned to be absorbed by the specific color of blood. The light passes through the skin without injuring the skin and is preferentially absorbed by the blood in the small Telangiectasias, venules, arterioles and capillaries. The light energy causes the blood to boil and the heat causes the wall of the structure to shrink and close. The process takes about 6 weeks.

Usually 3 IPL treatments scheduled 6 weeks apart are required to lighten the color of the skin causing the dark circle under the eye. Eye shields must be placed on the eye to protect the eye from the light. IPL is the best treatment for Rosacea.

o Laser– Two laser wavelengths are specifically absorbed by blood -the 532nm and 1064nm laser wavelengths. The 1064nm laser is usually too strong to be used on the eyelids. The 532nm laser is the one more commonly used on the lower eyelids. However, because the laser is so strong, the eyelid skin is often damaged and a scar or white area on the eyelid skin can occur.

Since IPL has been developed, the laser is no longer the choice for treating the eyelids. Eye shields must be placed on the eye to protect the eye from the laser.

o Vein Injections– Very large and noticeable veins on the lower eyelid can be closed by injecting a sclerosing solution that is most commonly used on the lower legs to treat spider veins. This is a very tricky procedure and should only be done by an expert experienced in this technique.

o Fractional laser resurfacing to thicken skin– New fractional laser resurfacing techniques are safe to use on the eyelids with eye protective shields in place. These new fractional laser techniques plump or thicken the lower eyelid skin and lighten the color. Thicker lower eyelid skin helps camouflage the vessels and Telangiectasias.


Inherited eyelid skin color cannot be prevented. However there are things we can do to prevent new telangiectasia and vascular structures from forming and making the skin color darker. Since Ultraviolet radiation from the sun causes inflammation and new vascular growth, sun protection is the most important.

o Sun block– Always make sure that you apply sun block to the eyelids when you apply sun block to your face.

o Eye protection-Always wear protective sunglasses that cover the crow’s feet areas as well as the eyes.

o Anti-inflammatory-Medical grade topical Vitamin C Serum is a powerful anti-inflammatory medication. Its use on the face and eyelids can help reduce inflammation which can cause telangiectasia and new vascular growth on the facial and eyelid skin.

If you are not happy with the color of your lower eyelids, IPL may be the answer you are looking for.


6 Things You Must Consider Before a Canadian Motorcycle Ride


If you plan to cruise the highways and drive a motorcycle in Canada the following information will be useful to consider both for your own safety, and for your own piece of mind.

Canadian Highways and Rural Roadways

Whether you decide to rent a motorcycle or drive your own, Canada has a massive system of well managed city streets and highways which will bring you just about anywhere you want to go.

The main highway throughout Canada is the Trans-Canada Highway, which goes coast to coast. The distance from the east coast to the west coast is about 8000 km or around 4,900 miles. You could go on a Canadian motorcycle ride for weeks and never get to see everything.

Motorcycle Rentals

Renting a motorcycle in Canada may be something you want to consider. Canada has several motorcycle rental companies found near the major cities and towns. Rates vary depending on the season, type of motorcycle and length of rental. The minimum age to rent a vehicle in Canada is usually anywhere from 21-25 years old. If you plan to travel through the western provinces on your motorcycle you might want to look into the many popular tourist attractions, and the great roads to travel.

In order to rent in most cases you will need to have a major credit card. Requirements may vary from each province. Be sure to reserve your motorcycle ahead of time during peak travel times, which are usually from mid May to November.

Camping With Your Motorcycle

Most Canadian provincial and national parks, private campgrounds and other conservation areas allow you to camp with your motorcycle.

All of the Canadian provinces have a government agency that is responsible for tourism. You should check their websites or call for information to get get maps, and possible promotional offers, and maybe even some more Canadian motorcycle information. If you plan to stay in a campground near a popular park like Banff, Whistler, and Fundy National Park you should book in advance.

Driving Laws- Canadian Motorcycle Driving

In Canada the road laws are very similar to the rules in most US states. Most road safety laws and regulations are determined at the provincial and territorial level, so make sure you know the particular rules for the province you plan to be visiting. One rule for motorcyclists throughout all Canadian Provinces is that you must wear a motorcycle helmet if you are driving a motorcycle in Canada.

Other things to consider while driving throughout all the Canadian provinces on a motorcycle are that you are allowed to make a right turn on red lights in most cities throughout the country after coming to a complete stop. Be careful though because in some areas of Quebec you are not allowed to do this. For more information, check with the Government of Quebec’s website.

In all Canadian provinces pedestrians have the right-of-way and you must yield to pedestrians at crosswalks. The speed limit on the most rural highways is usually around 90-100 km/hr or about 55-65 mph. Speed limits are enforced mainly by the RCMP in rural areas, and municipal police in most major cities throughout Canada.

If you are pulled over by a police officer you must provide proof of insurance, driver’s license and registration.


Many people who are not from Canada picture the country as having vast piles of snow and snowmobiles as the main mode of transportation. Nothing could be more false. In most provinces you can ride a motorcycle 8-9 months out of the year. In Vancouver British Columbia and other western cities and towns, people drive year round. The summer months can get very humid in Canada, and there are many Canadian motorcycle events held across the country on an annual basis.

Motorcycle Insurance Canada, Driver’s License and Permit

If you plan a ride a motorcycle through Canada and you are from the United States., your driver’s license is valid in Canada. Be sure to bring proof of motorcycle insurance by talking to your insurance company for a free Non-resident Inter Provincial Motor Vehicle Liability Insurance Card before you leave, or carry your policy itself.

If you’re driving a borrowed motorcycle, you should bring a letter signed by the owner that says you are allowed. Also for a rented motorcycle, carry a copy of the rental contract.


How to Control Your Siberian Husky’s Barking


Stop Your Siberian Husky’s Barking

Is your Siberian Husky barking too much? Does your husky bark so much you just don’t know what to do? You may already know that there are many different options you can take to help reduce your husky’s barking. Huskies are born to bark, making barking to them natural. It doesn’t matter the type of breed you are dealing, dogs will always bark. No matter how much you train your husky from not barking, they will always have an urge to express their emotions and needs. On the only breed of dogs that does not bark at all is the Basenji. This article will help provide some information regarding how to control your Siberian Husky’s barking.

An important concept to know is that all dogs will bark and that there are different types of barking that you can control. Thus, I will provide information regarding the reasons your husky barks and ways to better manage your husky’s barking.

The Causes of Dog Barking

There are many reasons that your husky will bark. Several reasons that they bark is because of anger, excitement, and fright. The following reasons listed are potential reasons that your husky may bark:

Territorial Barking

Alarm Barking

Attention Seeking Barking

Injury or Illness Related Barking

Compulsive Barking

Greeting Barking

By looking at the listed reasons your husky will bark, you can see that barking is a part of the husky’s nature. You will not be able to completely eliminate your husky’s barking. Your husky will want to at times to express different feelings, no matter how much effort and patience you put into stopping your husky from barking.

How to Stop a Barking Siberian Husky

When your husky is barking, the first step you must take is to see if the behavior is appropriate. Majority of the time the barking is excessive and it can be controlled; however, it is warranted it is your responsibility to fulfill your Siberian Husky’s needs. If you feel that your husky’s barking is excessive or should be controlled, you should ask yourself the three following questions:

When does my husky bark? What is my husky barking at? Are there specific triggers to my husky barking?

One method that doesn’t work to stop your Siberian husky from barking is to yell at them if they are barking because it is protecting its territory or is alarmed. If you yell at your husky in specific instances, it may result in biting or in other forms aggression. You want to train your Siberian husky to behave not misbehave. Also, when you yell at your husky they don’t understand what you are saying and though it may stop the barking, it doesn’t fix the reason why they were barking. To better control and even stop your Siberian Husky from barking, you must understand why they are barking.

It becomes your job as leader to build or create an environment where your husky doesn’t feel the urge to defend itself. You must take control of the household and become the alpha leader. Your role is to show your husky that you are in charge of protecting that specific territory. Specific things your can do around the house is to draw your blinds to hide the mailman, set up fences that prevent your Siberian husky from seeing outside the yard, and be sure to prevent the husky from having open access to the windows. Stop Barking Dogs with Anxiety

How do you stop your Siberian Husky’s barking when they anxiety issues? It is important to understand that the barking may be a result of something much greater. The husky wants your attention and often will bark until they receive the attention. Majority of the time, your husky performed an action that you have rewarded them for in the past and wants that reward again. When you return home to your barking husky, they usually get really excited. Your usually immediately give them attention when you return home. In order to stop your husky from associating your return with attention, which may be cause of their anxiety, ignore your husky for the about 10-15 minutes when you get home.

Lastly, to control your husky’s barking you should teach them commands to be quiet and how to speak. Through creating these commands you are better able to control your Siberian Husky’s behavior. You will be able to control their barking when it is not necessary, but when it is needed your husky will not be afraid to alert you. If there is an intruder you want your husky to alert you, but if it is a relative or family member it may not be desired.

A barking Siberian Husky does not have to burdensome to the community. If you start early enough you can stop your Siberian Husky’s barking and avoid angry neighbors who complain that your beautiful and precious husky was barking all day.


Carbon Paper Vs Carbonless Paper


Both carbon and carbonless paper can be used to make copies of documents without any electronic devices. There are differences in each kind, both in how they are made and their uses. Overall, 3-part carbonless paper is a more popular option than carbon paper alternatives, and here is why.

Carbon paper is the original version of electronic-free document copying. It is coated on one side with a dark, ink-like substance that usually contains carbon. It makes copies with the creation on the first document.

A sheet is put in between the original and blank sheet the user wants the copy to appear on. They write or type onto the original and the pressure from the application puts ink onto the blank sheet. This creates a carbon copy.

Carbon paper was first used around the 19th century with a patent for something called a stylographic writer. A few years later, another inventor created a typewriting machine using carbon paper as part of its function. This means carbon paper was discovered and growing around the same time.

Carbonless paper, also known as NCR paper, is a better and more popular alternative to carbon paper. It is stain free and biodegradable and easier to transfer. It also relies on pressure from a writing utensil in order to create the chemical reaction that leaves a copy on pages below the top copy.

To make two copies of a document, papers would have a white top sheet and one colored second sheet below. This is called a two-part or duplicate. To make three copies, there is a white top sheet and two colored sheets directly below. This is called a three-part or triplicate. Four copies would be called a four-part or quadruplicate.

Sometimes, users requires stacks of ten or more copies. This is easy to do with NCR paper. Carbonless copy paper is supplied to the end user collated in pads or books. They are bound into sets using glue or staple. Loose sets or continuous stationary is widely used in printers. Businesses can also specially order as many stacks of carbonless copy paper as needed.

For a 3 part carbonless paper, there are three sheets. The first is the CB sheet that is the original to be copies. The bottom part of the sheet is coated in a layer of microcapsules that contain color formers.

The CFB sheet is second. The top side is coated with a receptive layer which reacts chemically with the color former on the top CB sheet. On the bottom of the sheet, a transfer layer with microcapsules transfers the copy to the last sheet.

The third sheet, or CF sheet, is on the bottom of the set. The top side is the receptive layer which reacts with the microcapsules color former on the sheet above it. The receptive layer is most often manufactured using activated clays.

Carbon and carbonless paper is mostly used to make copies of receipts. It serves as a backup operation in case computer systems fail. These paper options are also used to transfer invoices, service tickets, sales order, and purchase orders. Carbon and carbonless paper is used by modern artists as a surface for beginning a painting.

Carbon paper has some unique uses. Police offers use carbon paper for evidence vouchers. Prison inmates are required to use carbon paper when writing letters or other notes so the prison has a copy. Business forms utilize carbon paper for purchase orders and invoices. Banks and small firms are the biggest buyers of carbon paper.

Carbon paper is also commonly used among tattoo artists. The artists can practice draw designs and show it to the customer as they work on it, making changes as needed. The paper is moistened and pressed to the skin to leave a carbon outline. Customers can also bring in a design or message they want tattooed and carbon paper transfers it.

Carbonless paper can be used for these uses and more. Quotes, legal forms, employment applications, insurance forms, proposals, and delivery forms all use carbonless paper. NCR paper can also be used for requisition forms, tracking manifests, and contracts.